Tests as part of your code
In the last project I worked on - processing financial batches - we put a lot of effort in avoiding being silently wrong. The practice that contributed most was being religious about avoiding structures to ever be in an invalid state. Preconditions, invariants, value objects and immutability were key.
One of the things we had to do with these structures was writing them to disk in a specific banking format; all the accounts with their transactions for a specific day. To verify the outcome of these functions, we had a decent test suite in place. But still, we felt like we had to do more; the person on the team that had been working in this domain for thirthy years had been relentlessy empathizing - nagging - that bugs here would be disastrous, and would have us end up in the newspaper. That’s when we decided to add postconditions, putting the tests closer to the production code. These would make sure we crashed hard, instead of silently producing something that was wrong.
To make sure we correctly wrote all transactions for one account to disk, we added a postcondition that looked something like this.
A few weeks later, running very large batches in test, we had this assertion fail randomly. An account can have hundred thousands of transactions a day. This is why the account structure did not contain its transactions - there were too many to hold them in memory. To make sure an account and its transactions added up, we did do set validations earlier on - no faulty state there. Since the assertion would only fail randomly, and the function had no dependencies on time or mutable state, the only culprit could be data feeded into the function. Since all transactions for one account wouldn’t fit in memory, we were streaming them in pages from the database, and this is where we forgot to sort the whole result first, resulting in random pages - doh.
Without this postcondition, we probably would have ended up in the newspaper. While putting your code under test is super valuable, having some crucial assertions as integral part of your code might strengthen it even more(*).
* This concept is central to the Eiffel programming language.